The CNR-ISAC Climatic Observatory of Lamezia Terme (LMT, Lat: 38° 52.605′ N, Lon: 16° 13.946′E, 6 AGL) is a coastal rural site, located in a strategic and isolated position, 600 m from the coastline of the Lamezia Terme plane, outside the only valley in Calabria which allows the Tyrrhenian Sea to connect with the Ionio Sea.
Its complex orography and its long and narrow shape create a complex interaction of breezes which develop perpendicularly the two coasts with the synoptic circulation, that mainly goes west. In detail, breezes from the sea go mainly W-WSW, while breezes from the earth go mainly E-ENE.
Breezes are characterized by seasonal cycles modulated by the temperature gradient between sea and land in addition to the synoptic circulation (more prevalent in determining local circulation in late fall and winter). In particular, while during the summer, there are strong breezes from the sea during the day, in winter there are, at night, intense breezes coming from the land. It has also been demonstrated how the breeze system dominated atmospheric circulation in Lamezia Terme and it has an important role in defining local climates.
The area presents polluting emissions coming from transportation, (airport, cruises from/to Gioia Tauro, local and highway traffic), houses and agriculture in addition to the deposits of a natural particulate like Saharan sand, and volcanic particulate coming from the two active volcanoes in the Mediterranean (Stromboli and Etna situated 80 km west and around 200 km south-east of the measurement site respectively).
Studying atmospheric circulation becomes particularly relevant and challenging to characterize daily and seasonal variability of atmospheric composition, for researches regarding renewable (solar and wind) energy and for the coast characterization to prevent fires and erosion.
The observatory is made up of two containers permanently powered by current, with a UPS system that can ensure electrical protection and continuity in measurements.
Data are available in real time and visualized on the website www.i-amica.it/lamezia-terme
Several continuous observation programs are running since 2014, December.
Meteorology and radiation:
- T, P, RH, WD, WI;
- shortwave and longwave upwelling and downwelling.
- Wind profiles (speed and direction (10 to 300 m);
- direct solar radiation.
- Surface Ozone;
- Sulfur Dioxide;
- Carbon Dioxide;
- Carbon monoxide;
- Nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2).
- VOC and OVOC measures.
- Particle number size distribution (280 nm 10µm);
- Aerosol mass of PM2.5 and PM10;
- Aerosol chemistry (intensive campaings);
- Scattering and back scattering coefficient (450, 550, 700 nm);
- Absorption coefficient (630 nm);
- Equivalent black carbon concentration, derived from absorption coefficient;
- Total particle number (4 nm to 3µm);
- Lidar Raman (355nm).
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